The Effect of Torbangun (Coleus amboinicus Lour) Leaf Extract on Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria Escherichia coli pBR322 and Toxicity Tests on Artemia salina Leach

  • Trini Suryowati Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Kristen Indonesia, Indonesia
  • John Jackson Yang Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Kristen Indonesia, Indonesia
  • Lusia Sri Sunarti Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Kristen Indonesia, Indonesia
  • Maria Bintang Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Kristen Indonesia, Indonesia
Keywords: antibacterial, inhibitory power, herbal, resistance, traditional


Inappropriate antibiotic use can lead to antibiotic resistance, causing many problems in the treatment of Escherichia coli infection. One way to avoid resistance is to use the traditional medicine Coleus amboinicus Lour, also known as Torbangun in Indonesia. The purpose of this study was to determine the inhibitory ability of 70% ethanol extract of Torbngun leaf against Escherichia coli pBR322 has plasmid pBR322, which is resistant to antibiotics Ampicillin and Tetracycline based on activity and minimum inhibitory concentration. Extraction was carried out using the maceration method. The presence of inhibition zones indicated antibacterial activity. The appearance of the inhibition zone at the minimum concentration indicated the minimum inhibitory concentration. Following this, the cytotoxic activity was evaluated using the brine shrimp lethality test. Data analysis was performed using an unpaired t-test using GraphPad Prism® software. Antibacterial activity tests showed that a 15% torbangun leaf extract concentration had inhibitory power against Escherichia coli pBR322. The toxicity test of torbangun leaf extract against Artemia salina Leach shrimp larvae showed LD50 results at a concentration of 150 ppm.


Association of Official Analytical Chemists & Association of Official Agricultural Chemists (US). (1925). Official methods of analysis of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists (Vol. 2). The Association.

Damanik, R., Wahlqvist, M. L., & Wattanapenpaiboon, N. (2006). Lactagogue effects of Torbangun, a Bataknese traditional cuisine. Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 15(2), 267.

Dathar, V. (2019). Coleus amboinicus. RECENT TRENDS IN PHARMACEUTICAL SCIENCES, 1.

Elsyana, V., Bintang, M., & Priosoeryanto, B. P. (2016). Cytotoxicity and antiproliferative activity assay of clove mistletoe (Dendrophthoe pentandra (L.) Miq.) leaves extracts. Advances in Pharmacological and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2016.

Erny Sabrina, M., Razali, M., Mirfat, A., & Mohd Shukri, M. (2014). Antimicrobial activity and bioactive evaluation of Plectranthus amboinicus essential oil. American Journal of Research Communication, 2(12), 121–127.

Frieri, M., Kumar, K., & Boutin, A. (2017). Antibiotic resistance. Journal of Infection and Public Health, 10(4), 369–378.

Iwansyah, A. C., Damanik, M. R. M., Kustiyah, L., & Hanafi, M. (2017). Potensi fraksi etil asetat daun torbangun (Coleus amboinicus L.) dalam meningkatkan produksi susu, bobot badan induk, dan anak tikus. Jurnal Gizi Dan Pangan, 12(1), 61–68.

Manges, A. (2016). Escherichia coli and urinary tract infections: The role of poultry-meat. Clinical Microbiology and Infection, 22(2), 122–129.

Manges, A. R., Geum, H. M., Guo, A., Edens, T. J., Fibke, C. D., & Pitout, J. D. (2019). Global extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) lineages. Clinical Microbiology Reviews, 32(3), 10–1128.

McLaughlin, J. L., Rogers, L. L., & Anderson, J. E. (1998). The use of biological assays to evaluate botanicals. Drug Information Journal, 32(2), 513–524.

Mere, J. K., Bintang, M., & Safithri, M. (2021). Antibacterial Effectiveness of Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels Leaves to Escherichia coli pBR322. Indonesian Journal of Chemical Research, 9(1), 8–14.

Nazliniwaty, N., & Laila, L. (2019). Formulation and antibacterial activity of plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) spreng leaves ethanolic extract as herbal mouthwash against halitosis caused bacteria. Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences, 7(22), 3900.

Phan, M. A. T., Wang, J., Tang, J., Lee, Y. Z., & Ng, K. (2013). Evaluation of α-glucosidase inhibition potential of some flavonoids from Epimedium brevicornum. LWT-Food Science and Technology, 53(2), 492–498.

Praveena, B., & Pradeep S, N. (2012). Antioxidant and antibacterial activities in the leaf extracts of Indian borage (Plectranthus amboinicus). Food and Nutrition Sciences, 2012.

Rendowaty, A., Djamaan, A., & Handayani, D. (2017). Waktu kultivasi optimal dan aktivitas antibakteri dari ekstrak etil asetat jamur simbion Aspergillus unguis (WR8) dengan Haliclona fascigera. JSFK (Jurnal Sains Farmasi & Klinis), 4(1), 49–54.

Santos, F. A., Serra, C. G., Bezerra, R. J., Figueredo, F. G., Matias, F., Menezes, I. R., Costa, J. G., & Coutinho, H. D. (2016). Antibacterial activity of Plectranthus amboinicus Lour (Lamiaceae) essential oil against Streptococcus mutans. European Journal of Integrative Medicine, 8(3), 293–297.

Struyf, T., & Mertens, K. (2017). European Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance Network (EARS-Net Belgium) Report 2017.

Sunarti, L. S. (2022). Microbial normal flora: Its existence and their contribution to homeostasis. Journal of Advances in Microbiology, 22(9), 1–15.

Suryowati, T., & Gultom, M. (2018). The Anti-hyperuricemic Effect of Torbangun (Coleus amboinicus Lour) Aqueous Extract. International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications, 8(7), 6–10.

Yang, J. J., Huang, Y.-C., Chuang, T.-H., Herr, D. R., Hsieh, M.-F., Huang, C.-J., & Huang, C.-M. (2020). Cysteine-capped hydrogels incorporating copper as effective antimicrobial materials against methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus. Microorganisms, 8(2), 149.

Zakaria, Z., Soekamto, N. H., & Firdaus, F. (2017). AKTIVITAS ANTIBAKTERI DARI FRAKSI ARTOCARPUS INTEGER (Thunb.) Merr. DENGAN METODE DIFUSI AGAR (Antibacterial Activity of Artocarpus Integer (thunb.) Merr. Fraction by Difusi Agar Method). Indonesian Journal of Industrial Research, 12(2), 1–6.

How to Cite
Suryowati, T., Yang, J. J., Sunarti, L. S., & Bintang, M. (2024). The Effect of Torbangun (Coleus amboinicus Lour) Leaf Extract on Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria Escherichia coli pBR322 and Toxicity Tests on Artemia salina Leach. Indonesian Journal of Applied Research (IJAR), 5(1), 1-8.