Post Conflict Bakassi and Role of Cameroonian and Nigerian Military

  • Stephen Achuo Kpwa Department of History, University of Yaoundé 1, Cameroon
Keywords: bakassi peninsula, cameroon, military, nigeria, resolution


No one would have thought that the military clashes between Cameroon and Nigeria over the Bakassi Peninsula would one day end.  For close to 50 years, Cameroon and Nigeria had been fighting over the resource-rich area of Bakassi to take control of it.  The mechanisms that resolved these military upheavals were the World Court's Judgment (WCJ) of 2006 and the Green Tree Agreement (GTA) of 2006.  The end of the five-year special regime program, as stipulated by the GTA, finally laid to rest the Bakassi conflict.  Hitherto, following the end of hostilities between the Cameroonian and Nigerian military in the Bakassi Peninsula, the region was/is being marred by militant activities.  The main thrust of this paper is to examine the role played by the Cameroonian and Nigerian military in maintaining peace in the Bakassi peninsula even after the conflict has been resolved.  This research used the qualitative method with content and thematic analysis on some military activities in the Bakassi peninsula.  Data was collected from secondary sources and observations from two field undertakings in Bamusso, Isangele, and Idabato subdivisions in the Bakassi region.  After resolving the conflict, this paper cautions that Cameroonians and the Nigerian military have not only been engaged in security activities but have taken up new humanitarian and developmental activities.  This research recommends for Cameroon and Nigerian governments divert heavy projects from the military to civilians, deploying more civilian personnel in the medical, judicial, and administrative fields in the Bakassi Peninsula.  They should only limit the use of their military personnel in fighting piracy and militancy in the area.  If such policies are implemented, both countries will be assured peace and tranquillity in the Bakassi Peninsula.


Aboh, J. A., & Ubom, B. E. (n.d.). Bakassi after the International Court of Justice Judgment (ICJ), Matters Arising.

Akonye, E.J., & Nwapi, R.O. (2019). Bakassi Peninsula Debacle: A Critical Analysis of the ICJ Verdict on the Issue, And Why Nigeria Lost Bakassi Peninsula to Cameroon. International Journal of Innovative Science, Engineering & Technology, 6(11), 1-16.

Akpan, A. (2022a). Nigerian separatist allegedly bombs military post in Isangele, kills two soldiers. The Guardian Nigeria, July 10, 2022. Retrieved on 22/05/2023 from

Akpan, A. (2022b). Cameroonian forces invade Biafra separatist camping Bakassi. The Guardian, August 16, 2022. Retrieved on 5/22/23 from

Akwei, I. (2017). Cameroon declares two days of mourning for army shipwreck victims. Africa News, July 28, 2017. Retrieved on 22/05/2023 from

Alobo, E. E., & Nabiebu, M. (2022). International Conflicts and Enforcement of Judgment: Exploring the Use of Administrative Implementation Measures in Post-Icjs Decision on Bakassi. Academy of Strategic Management Journal, 21(3), 1-12.

Amin, J. A. (2020). Cameroon's relations toward Nigeria: A foreign policy of pragmatism. The Journal of Modern African Studies, 58(1), 1–22.

Amin, J. A. (2021). Equality, Non-Interference, and Sovereignty: President Ahmadou Ahidjo and the Making of Cameroon-U.S. Relations. African Studies Review, 64(4), 826–853.


Ariye, E. C. (2023). Understanding The Role Of International Law In The Resolution Of The Conflict Between Nigeria And Cameroon Over The Bakassi Peninsula. SAGBAMAN: Academic Journal of Arts & Humanities, 1(2), 58-70.

Asare, A. (2022). Militant group fires sporadic shots to retaliate detention of leader in Bakassi. Daily Post Nigeria, July 11, 2022. Retrieved on 09/12/2022 from

Asare, A. (2023a). Police foil another attempt by agitators to hoist Biafra flag in Bakassi. Daily Post Nigeria, January 19, 2023. Retrieved on 22/05/2023 from

Asare, A. (2023b). Cameroonian forces capture commander of pro-Biafran militants in Bakassi. Daily Post Nigeria, January 25, 2023. Retrieved on 22/05/2023 from

Beckly, A. T. (2013). The Perceptions/Views of Cameroon –Nigerian Bakassi border conflict by the Bakassi people. 1994-2008.


Bola, FCE (2019). Cameroon army medics sent to tackle Bakassi cholera outbreak. APA News, November 22, 2019. Retrieved on 22/05/2023 from

Chia, N.G., & Kpwa, S.A. (2023). The Biafra Nations League (BNL): A New Scare in the Bakassi Peninsula. Global Journal of Arts Humanity and Social Sciences, 3(6), 673-681.

Denzin, N. K. (2017). Sociological methods: A sourcebook. Routledge.

Dźwigoł, H., & Barosz, P. (2020). Observation as a research method in social science. Scientific Papers of Silesian University of Technology – Organization and Management Series, 2020(148), 141–149.

Funteh, M. B. (2015). The Concept of Boundary and Indigenous Application in Africa: The Case of the Bakassi Boarder Lines of Cameroon and Nigeria. International Journal of Humanities and Cultural Studies (IJHCS), 1(4), 220-237.

Funteh, M. B. (2019). Security crises in Cameroon coastal towns: Bakassi freedom fighters’ reaction to international decision over the Bakassi Peninsula. Crossing the line in Africa: Reconsidering and unlimiting the limits of borders within a contemporary value, 325.

Hasa, I (2015). Cameroon – Bakassi: A pirate attack leaves one dead. 237 Online, February 23, 2015. Retrieved on 09/02/2023 from

Joseph, A. E., & Ogedi, R. (2019). Bakassi Peninsula Debacle: A Critical Analysis Of The ICJ Verdict On The Issue, And Why Nigeria Lost Bakassi Peninsula To Cameroon. 6(11).

Kam-Kah, H. (2014). The Bakassi Crisis: The Role of the Nigerian and Cameroonian Military, 1981–2013. Conflict Studies Quarterly, 6, 3-22.

Kindzeka, M.E. (2017). Families of Victims in Loss of Cameroonian Ship Demand Answers. VOA News, July 26, 2017. Retrieved on 5/22/23 from

Kindzeka, M.E. (2019). More Deaths Feared from Cholera in Cameroon. VOA News, November 29, 2019. Retrieved on 5/22/22 from

Kometa, R. (2016). Joint Army Chief of Staff Visits Bakassi. Cameroon Tribune, August 28, 2016. Retrieved on 02/02/2023 from

Kpwa, S.A. (2022). World Court's Verdict Towards Bakassi Peninsula: Portraying Gains and Losses. Indonesian Journal of Social Research (IJSR), 4(2), 83-95,

Kpwa, S.A. (2023). The Violation of Human Rights during the Bakassi Peninsula Conflict from 1965 to 2013. Interdisciplinary Journal on Law, Social Sciences and Humanities, 4(1), 111-115. doi: 10.19184/idj.v4i1.38085

Kpwa, S.A. (2019). The Cameroon- Nigeria Bakassi Peace Process: The Workability of the ICJ's verdict and the Green Tree Accord, 2002-2018. Dissertation, not published. University of Yaoundé 1, Cameroon.

La Rédaction (2017). Cameroon: Bakassi Peninsula – Government Steps up Development. Actu Plus, October 25, 2017. Retrieved on 5/22/23 from

LeFebvre, R. K. (2013). Interests and Identities in Peace Negotiations: Nigeria, Cameroon, and the Bakassi Peninsula. Digital Scholarship, 6(1).

Mbonwo, N. (2019). Cholera Outbreak in Bakassi: Six Deaths, 34 Cases Being Treated. Cameroon Tribune, November 25, 2019. Retrieved on 5/22/22 from

Mbonwo, N. (2022). Cameroon-Nigeria Relations: Joint Cross River-Bridge Commissioning Today. Cameroon Tribune, November 3, 2022. Retrieved on 5/22/23 from

NAN (2015). Army provides free medical service to 300 Bakassi IDPs. The Guardian Nigeria, October 2, 2015. Retrieved on 04/12/2020 from

National Daily (2021a). Border blockade: Fresh tension in Bakassi peninsula as Cameroonian soldiers kill two Biafra League members. National Daily, October 24, 2021. Retrieved on 02/07/2022 from

National Daily (2021b). Biafra League takes over southern Cameroon, restricts government from executing projects in Bakassi Peninsula. National Daily, August 23, 2021. Retrieved on 02/07/2022 from

Ngalame, E.N. (2014). Floods disrupt development Cameroon’s Bakassi Peninsula. The Prevention Web, August 4, 2014. Retrieved from on 02/3/2019 from


Ngam, C. C., & Budi, R. N. (2021). The Anglophone Question in Cameroon: Historical Context and Evolution from “Everyday” Resistance to Armed Conflict, 1961-2017. Africana Studia, (33).

Ngonmenyui, K. (2021). Bakassi Peninsular: BIR Delta Encourages Back-To-School. Cameroon Tribune, October 8 2021. Retrieved on 5/22/22 from

Ngwane, G. (2015). Preventing renewed violence through peace building in the Bakassi peninsula (Cameroon). Retrieved October, 1, 2020.

Njinjuh, J.E. (2014). Firestorm Renders Over 300 Homeless in Bakassi. Eden Newspaper, December 30, 2014. Retrieved on 02/02/2023 from

Noble, H., & Heale, R. (2019). Triangulation in research, with examples. Evidence Based Nursing, 22(3), 67–68.

Nwachukwu, J. O. (2022). Casualties as Biafra group clashes with Cameroonian soldiers. Daily Post Nigeria, July 23, 2022. Retrieved on 22/05/2023 from

Nwokolo, N. N. (2020). Peacebuilding or structural violence? Deconstructing the aftermath of Nigeria/Cameroon boundary demarcation. African Security Review, 29(1), 41-57.

Obodo, I. N. (2017). Nigeria-Cameroon Border Relations: A Historical Analysis of the Bakassi Peninsula Region. 1(1).

Ogbolu, G. O. (2021). Biafra Group Clash with Cameroon Forces at Bakassi Peninsula. Naija News, May 9, 2021. Retrieved on 02/07/2022 from

Okoi, O. (2016). Why Nations Fight: The Causes of the Nigeria–Cameroon Bakassi Peninsula Conflict. African Security, 9(1), 42–65.

Olowookere, D. (2016). Navy Nabs Notorious Militant Leader in Calabar. Business Post Nigeria, September 16, 2016. Retrieved on 5/22/23 from

Oritse, G. (2020). Six pirates killed in raid off Nigeria, Cameroon waters. The Vanguard, June 17, 2020. Retrieved on 22/02/2023 from

Sahara Reporters (2023). Militants Kill Two Cameroon Army Personnel, Hoist Biafra Nation's Flag in Bakassi. Sahara Reporters, January 5, 2023. Retrieved on 5/22/23 from

Shaibu, M. T., Azom, S. N., & Nwanze, E. S. (2015). An appraisal of the dominant causes of boundary conflict between Nigeria and Cameroun: The Bakassi Peninsula perspective. Global Journal of Arts, Humanities and Social Sciences, 3(9), 25-47.

Silas, D. (2021). Biafra group removes Cameroon's national flag from Bakassi Peninsula. Daily Post Nigeria, August 17, 2021. Retrieved on 02/05/22 from

Sun News (2017). Southern Cameroun joins IPOB in Biafra struggle. Sun News, April 18, 2012. Retrieved on 08/12/2019 from

Tabetah, B.A. (2013). The Perceptions/Views of Cameroon–Nigerian Bakassi border conflict by the Bakassi people. Master's Dissertation, not published. Uppsala University, Sweden.

Tadjon, C. (2016). Cameroon: What General René Meka Went to Do in Bakassi. 237 Online, August 30, 2016. Retrieved on 5/22/23 from

Torrent, M. (2012). Diplomacy and Nation-Building in Africa: Franco-British relations and Cameroon at the end of empire. Bloomsbury Publishing.

Ugbudian, L. I. (2018). The role of natural resources in Nigeria-Cameroun border dispute. Global Journal of Human-Social Science: H Interdisciplinary, 18(5), 9-16.

Ukpong, C. (2017). Nigerian troops arrest another "militant kingpin" in Cross River. Premium Times Nigeria, September 17, 2016. Retrieved on 07/08/2020 from

Umoh, U. E. (2015). Cameroon, Nigeria and the Bakassi conflict: building blocks for a Non-Democratic Peace Theory. Journal of International Relations and Development, 18, 227-247.

Yerima, H. M., & Singh, D. S. R. (2017). The Bakassi Dispute: People's Dynamics and the rise of militancy. IOSR Journal of Humanities and Social Science, 22(01), 67–70.

How to Cite
Kpwa, S. A. (2023). Post Conflict Bakassi and Role of Cameroonian and Nigerian Military. Indonesian Journal of Social Research (IJSR), 5(2), 142-156.