Creating an Alternate Field Experience Framework for University-Based Preservice Teacher Education in the COVID-19 Nigeria

  • Saheed Achmad Rufai Sokoto State University, Nigeria
  • Luqman Lekan Adedeji Department of Arts and Social Science Education, University of Lagos, Nigeria
  • Bello Musa Department of Educational Foundations, Sokoto State University, Nigeria
  • Uthman Animashaun Department of Language, Arts and Social Science Education, Lagos State University, Nigeria
  • Sanni Aliu Saidi Department of Religion and Theology, University of the Western Cape, South Africa
  • Morufu Sanni Okusanya Department of Languages, Ansarudeen, College of Education, Nigeria
Keywords: Transitioning to an alternative format of teaching practicum; Field experience during the COVID-19 pandemic; Alternative field experience framework formulation; Student teaching during emergency school closures; Pedagogical framework development.


It is widely reported that several institutions of higher learning in various parts of the world attempted to mitigate the risks of learning disruptions occasioned by school closures, by switching to the online system of education. In the Nigerian context however the field experience component of teacher education witnessed an unprecedented setback as the online system that was later activated in some universities failed to factor the component into the alternative arrangement. Given that the present COVID-19 is not likely to be the last, as established by various reports including the World Bank December, 2021 document, the exercise may have to be suspended or delayed whenever there are emergency school closure. This paper attempts to formulate a COVID-19 compliant field experience framework for the Nigerian setting. The formulation is based on findings from a survey of emerging COVID-19 focussed alternatives and preservice teachers. The paper whose context comprises three Nigerian public universities where the lead researcher was, at different times, a field experience assessor employs a combination of a survey method, the philosophical method, observation, document analysis, and creative synthesis. The literature, findings from the survey and online interviews with student teachers constitute the bases of the formulation.  


Adler, P. A., & Adler, P. (1994). Observational techniques.

Adom, D., Yeboah, A., & Ankrah, A. K. (2016). Constructivism philosophical paradigm: Implication for research, teaching, and learning. Global Journal of Arts Humanities and Social Sciences, 4(10), 1–9.

Aglazor, G. (2017). The role of teaching practice in teacher education programmes: Designing framework for best practice. Global Journal of Educational Research, 16(2), 101–110.

Allan, P. (1997). Designing a School Curriculum. Allyn & Bacon

Besser, E. R. (2020) Video Instruction Transparency During COVID-19 Modelling for Student Teachers. In Ferdig, R.E., Baumgartner, E., Hartshorne, R., Kaplan- Rakowski, R., & Mouza, C. (Eds). Teaching, Technology, and Teacher Education During the COVID-19 Pandemic: Stories from the Field. Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education (AACE). Retrieved June 15, 2020.from

Boynton, P. M., & Greenhalgh, T. (2004). Selecting, designing, and developing your questionnaire. Bmj, 328(7451), 1312–1315.

Casinillo, L., & Suarez, M. (2022). Evaluating Attributes, Traits and Competencies of a School Leader: A Descriptive Correlational Study. Indonesian Journal of Social Research (IJSR), 4(1), 40–53.

Cresswell, J. W., & Plano Clark, V. L. (2011). Designing and conducting mixed methods research. Sage

Eisner, E. W. (2017). The enlightened eye: Qualitative inquiry and the enhancement of educational practice. Teachers College Press.

Fore, H.H. & Malpass, D. (2021). Reversing the Pandemic Education Losses. A Joint UNICEF-World Bank Report. December, 2021

Fossey, E., Harvey, C., McDermott, F., & Davidson, L. (2002). Understanding and evaluating qualitative research. Australian & New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 36(6), 717–732.

Gebhard, J.G. (2009). 'The Practicum'. In A.Burs & J.C. Richards (Eds), The Cambridge

guide to second language teacher education (pp. 250-258). USA: CUP.

Hendrith, S., Banks, C., & Holland, A. (2020.). Preservice Teacher Perceptions of Transition to an Electronic Portfolio as a Substitution for Practicum Experience.

Jorgensen, E. (2006). On philosophical method. University Press.

Kliebard, H. M. (1992). Success and failure in educational reform. Forging the American Curriculum. New York City: Routledge.

Koch, B., & Vu, P. (2020). Virtual Field Experience and Mock Interview Opportunities for Preservice Special Education and Secondary Teachers. Teaching, Technology, and Teacher Education During the COVID-19 Pandemic: Stories from the field, 343–346.


Labere, D. (1992), Teacher Education. Heritage

Lakens, D. (2021). Sample size justification. PsyArXiv. 1–31.

Lincoln, Y. S., & Guba, E. G. (1985). Naturalistic inquiry. sage.

Livers, S. D., & Piccolo, D. (2020). Using a Critical Perspective to Transition an Elementary Mathematics Methods Course to a Virtual Learning Experience.

Mollenkopf, D., Gaskill, M., Ferdig, R., Baumgartner, E., Hartshorne, R., Kaplan-Rakowski, R., & Mouza, C. (2020). Creating meaningful learning experiences for preservice and in-service teachers facing interruptions in field experience placements during the COVID-19 pandemic. Teaching, Technology, and Teacher Education during the COVID-19 Pandemic: Stories from the field, 347–354.

Monroe, L., Mendez, L., Nutta, J., Ferding, R., Baumgartner, E., Hartshorne, R., Kaplan-Rakowski, R., & Mouza, C. (2020). Virtually remote: How interrupted internships continued in a virtual classroom. Teaching, Technology, and Teacher Education during the COVID-19 Pandemic: Stories from the field, 303–308.

Moser, C. A., & Kalton, G. (2017). Survey methods in social investigation. Routledge.

Murphy, T. (2007). Jack Mezirow and perspective transformation: Toward an understanding of Irish educational policy within a European framework. Policy Futures in Education, 5(4), 491–496.

O’leary, Z. (2014). Primary data: Surveys, interviews and observation. The Essential Guide to Doing Your Research Project, 201–216.

Ornstein, A. C., & Hunkin, F. (2004). Foundations, principles and issues.

Owen, G. T. (2014). Qualitative methods in higher education policy analysis: Using interviews and document analysis. The Qualitative Report, 19(26), 1.

Patton, M. Q. (2002). Qualitative research & evaluation methods. Sage.

Rufai, S. A. (2012). Proposing and Islamic Alternative to Dominant Western and Islamic Models of Teacher Education Curriculum: An Attempt at Curriculum Construction. ASEAN Journal of Teaching & Learning in Higher Education, 4(1).

Samuel, M. (2002). Working in the rain: Pressures and priorities for teacher education curriculum design in South Africa: A case study of the University of Durban-Westville. International Journal of Educational Development, 22(3–4), 397–410.

Saylor, J., Alexander, W., & Lewis, A. (1981). Curriculum Planning for Better Teaching and Learning. New York: Holt. Reinehart and Winston.

Stevick, E.W. (1980). Teaching Languages: A way and ways. Rowley, MA: Newbury House

Tom, A. R. (1997). Redesigning teacher education. Suny Press.

How to Cite
Rufai, S. A., Luqman Lekan Adedeji, Bello Musa, Uthman Animashaun, Sanni Aliu Saidi, & Morufu Sanni Okusanya. (2022). Creating an Alternate Field Experience Framework for University-Based Preservice Teacher Education in the COVID-19 Nigeria. Indonesian Journal of Social Research (IJSR), 4(2), 109-123.